4 de gen. 2012

Tres models d'entitats de voluntariat



 Quan parlem d’associacionisme, voluntariat o Tercer Sector estem parlant d’una realitat amb moltes semblances i algunes diferències. Estem parlant d’un sector no lucratiu, organitzat per entitats i que té un interès per la incidència social. Depenent de la importància del voluntariat, podem distingir tres models d’entitat. 

Hi ha entitats que són sobretot de voluntariat. Els projectes i les activitats realitzats per voluntaris són el centre de la seva activitat. Els assalariats poden ajudar a organitzar i coordinar tasques, però l’entitat es basa en el treball voluntari. Un cas prou conegut és el de l’educació en el lleure. Els monitors i caps són voluntaris que planifiquen, executen i avaluen la seva pròpia activitat. A la seu central de l’entitat hi ha un petit equip professional, ara més complet que fa vint anys, que gestiona  la comunicació de l’entitat, les assegurances o altres temes logístics. Però els caps i monitors, no necessiten cap “coordinador” assalariat de voluntariat que els capti, els fidelitzi o que els acompanyi...

A l’inversa, trobem que hi ha moltes entitats no lucratives que funcionen sobretot amb personal assalariat. Són entitats que s’emmarquen en el Tercer Sector i són en bona part proveïdors de serveis per l’administració en el camp de l’atenció a persones amb necessitats específiques. La majoria dels projectes són realitzats per personal contractat. El voluntariat, quan n’hi ha, pot fer tasques de reforç i complement, però sempre subordinat al treball professional. En els darrers anys moltes entitats nascudes inicialment amb treball voluntari en l’àmbit social han tendit cap al creixement basant-se en aquest model i han col·laborat a la consolidació del potent Tercer Sector Social a Catalunya.

Hi ha moltes entitats que se situen en un punt mig entre aquests dos models i compten amb un equilibri entre professionals  i voluntaris. Conviuen projectes propis de l’entitat desenvolupats per voluntaris, projectes professionalitzats i també projectes mixtes. És en aquests darrers on cal afinar més la convivència i els rols que desenvolupen voluntaris i assalariats. Algunes entitats conegudes amb aquest model poden ser el Casal dels Infants per a l'acció social als barris que compta amb 180 tècnics assalariats i 860 voluntaris o Creu Roja Catalunya, amb 16.000 voluntaris i gairebé 1.300 tècnics assalariats.

Tots tres models exposats poden funcionar molt bé. No són unes entitats més altruistes, més autèntiques o més pures que les altres. Ni tampoc unes altres més serioses, més eficaces o més eficients. El que és important és que cada entitat decideixi lliurement quin és el model que vol seguir, ho expliciti i actuï amb conseqüència per arribar-hi.

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