17 de juny 2016

Dret d'asil? Crisi humanitària i racisme institucional

... Alba Cuevas


La inacció de la Unió Europea en donar resposta a la situació de milers de persones que busquen protecció internacional és un exemple del racisme institucional, present en les polítiques de la Unió i dels Estats Membres, que pren diferents fórmules segons el nivell de l'administració competent des d'on és perpetrat.

Estem constatant el dramàtic fracàs del Sistema Europeu Comú d'Asil, i podem anomenar tres elements clau que l'evidencien. En primer lloc, la priorització de la seguretat davant del compliment dels drets humans: les partides que els Estats Membres de la Unió van destinar al control de fronteres són escandalosament més elevades que les destinades a l'acollida de persones refugiades. Cal tenir en compte que el 85% de les persones refugiades es troba en països empobrits, en molts casos emissors de persones refugiades. 

En segon lloc, la ineficàcia del Conveni de Dublín.[1] El “sistema de Dublín” es basa en la suposició que, com les lleis i els procediments d'asil en els Estats de la UE estan fonamentats en uns mateixos estàndards comuns, permeten als sol·licitants d'asil gaudir d'uns nivells de protecció similars en tots ells. Però a la pràctica, s'està deixant a càrrec dels països del Sud de la Unió (principalment Grècia e Itàlia) l'acollida de les persones refugiades.

I com a tercer element, la ineficàcia de les polítiques de «reubicació» per quotes de les persones sol·licitants d'asil - a més a més de la clara violació al dret internacional d'asil que la política de les quotes suposa: els països de la UE no estan complint la quota, assignada per la Comissió Europea.

Davant de la inacció dels estats, cal anomenar la mobilització ciutadana que s'ha solidaritzat amb el patiment de milers de persones, que ha pres consciència i que ha decidit organitzar-se en moviments per a defensar els drets humans i per a exigir responsabilitats i canvis a les autoritats competents.

Enguany les conseqüències de guerres, de situacions de misèria, de manques d'oportunitats i de futur en molts països del món... han picat a les portes dels països europeus. Han deixat de ser titulars llunyans amagats a les pàgines d'internacional, per convertir-se en notícies de portada, perquè aquestes persones arribaven a platges i fronteres de moltes ciutats europees.

Però la UE i els seus estats membre miren cap a una altra banda, l'aposta és consolidar l'Europa fortalesa: amb el blindatge, la militarització i l'externalització de fronteres.




[1]
        El Conveni de Dublín és un acord dels Estats membres de la Unió Europea, pel qual s'estableix a quin Estat correspon examinar una sol·licitud d'asil segons les circumstàncies d'accés als països membres. Es va signar en 1990 i va ser ratificat per l'Estat espanyol en 1995. En 2003 va ser substituït pel Reglament 343/2003 del Consell Europeu per a la determinació de l'Estat responsable de l'examen d'una sol·licitud d'asil, encara que en l'argot jurídic se segueix al·ludint a aquest reglament com “Dublín II”. Un nou reglament (Dublín III) va ser aprovat el 26 de juny de 2013, i té com a objectiu teòric millorar l'eficàcia del sistema i la protecció concedida a les persones sol·licitants.

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